photoImproving Speed-Back to Basics
Part II In teaching team speed.
By Cheryl Coker, DESIGNING A SPEED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Improvements in speed and base-running ability can be obtained by learning correct running mechanics through form running drills. Good technique, however, can take an athlete only so far. Reprogramming the central nervous system through a fundamentally sound training program is required to change an individual's underlying speed. The purpose of this article is to present information that will help you design a speed development program for softball.

 

Speed can be broken down into acceleration and maximum velocity. (See Figure 1) According to this figure, softball players rarely reach maximum speed in base running. If this is the case, why don't softball players only train for acceleration, particularly out of the batter's box and off the base?

To run faster, you have to change your underlying speed. As a player's maximum speed increases, improvement is realized at all percentages of that speed. The start (out of the batter's box and off the base), acceleration, and maximum velocity all need to be trained to achieve a player's maximum potential.

The Start

Exploding in the direction of the run is the key to powerful starts both out of the batter's box and off of the base. It is not within the scope of this article to discuss starting techniques. Regardless of the technique used, there are a number of drills that can indeed improve starting by improving power.

  1. Pushup starts-Line up in the sprint start position (four point stance). The hips are raised into the set position. Maintaining the starting posture, perform a pushup. In a continuous motion, at the top of the pushup, an explosive horizontal drive is executed and players sprint a given distance.
  2. Medicine ball starts-Medicine ball starts are underhand, between the legs throws. Stand with feet slightly wider than shoulder length apart holding a medicine ball with two hands. Lower the body by bending at the knees while simultaneously allowing the medicine ball to go back between the legs. Allow the body's balance to shift forward. From this position, throw the medicine ball at about a 35 to 45 degree angle to the horizontal. Generate the power to throw by exploding with the legs. At the height of release, the movement is converted to a sprint after the ball.
  3. Harness starts-Using a harness, or even a rubber bicycle tire tube, perform starts with resistance. One player is in the harness and drives from an arbitrary starting position while the partner provides resistance. Focus on knee drive.
  4. Get up starts-These are a fun way to work on starts and are only limited by your imagination. The player will start in some predetermined position and perform a series of movements sprinting as fast as possible. An example could be to start on the stomach facing the opposite direction and on command get up and sprint. The complexity of the start can be increased to include a series of movements. For example, the player lies on her stomach facing the opposite direction to the run, does six pushups, rolls onto the back, performs six sit ups, six donkey kicks, and then sprints.
  5. Roll-over starts-Players line up at the start with the toes of the back foot beside the heel of the front foot. They will then lean forward and at the point where they are just about to lose their balance, they explode horizontally and sprint as fast as possible.

Acceleration

Acceleration plays a major role in base running. Acceleration is characterized by the ability to overcome inertia at a high rate. Sprinting over distances of 10 to 40 meters will focus on the acceleration phase. The following drills will also improve acceleration:

  1. Wall Drill-The wall drill teaches correct acceleration technique by forcing players to drive backwards into the ground. Stand three to four feet from a wall. Lean forward and place hands on the wall. Arms should be fully extended. In this position, drive the knees towards the wall. Ground contact time should be minimized. The technique used to perform this drill resembles that of pushing a car.
  2. Stick Drill-The stick drill focuses on the increasing stride length that occurs in acceleration. Place a piece of tape (sticks, chalk, rope, etc.) 40 centimeters from the start line. Continue to place markers, adding 10 centimeters each interval, for five to 10 meters. Place the ball of the first foot just in front of the start line. Run through the "course" contacting each piece of tape. Correct technique is characterized by propelling the hips horizontally past the second piece of tape while the legs drive back into the ground in order to contact the tape. If done correctly, the body position will resemble that of the wall drill.
  3. Resistance Exercises-Resistance exercises such as running with a parachute, harness tire, weighted vest, uphill, etc., focus on the expressiveness and power required to maximize acceleration. These exercises train specific strengths by requiring players to work harder over a given distance. Although these drills make running more difficult, technique should not suffer. If technique begins to deteriorate, decrease the amount of resistance.

Max Velocity

Maximum velocity is reached at distances of 30 to 60 meters. Maximum velocity is the highest speed achieved during a sprint. Efforts must range between 90 to 100 percent in order to improve top speed. The following drills are designed to stimulate the central nervous system and the muscles to develop maximum speed:

  1. Ins and Outs-Ins and outs are a segmented run. The "in" is performed at 100 percent intensity. The "out" is a maintenance phase where the speed and stride frequently are sustained but maximum effort is controlled. An example of an ins and outs design would resemble the following: The distance for the ins and outs are controlled by the coach and the overall distance can range between 60 to 100 meters. Always end the run on an "in".
  2. Flying Starts-Flying starts involve building up into an all out effort. An example would be a 15 meter flying start into a 40 meter sprint. In this example, players should reach top speed by the end of the 15 meter "fly". This speed is then maintained over the remaining 40 meters. Flying starts should be a gradual but proportional buildup to top speed. A sudden change in speed once the player hits 15 meters can result in injury and should be avoided.
  3. Over-speed Training-Over-speed training is also an effective method of training maximum velocity. Running downhill will increase the runner's natural speed. The grade of the hill should not exceed 10 percent. Assisted running or "towing" with elastic tubing can also benefit maximum velocity. It should be noted, however, that the athlete should have a strong base before over speed training is introduced due to its demanding nature and increased chance of injury.

Designing a Program

Speed development should occur year round. By adjusting workout volume and intensity, peak speed can be realized during the competition season. Sport specificity also evolves from general to specific as the competitive season approaches.

Speed development in the off-season involves high volume, low intensity workouts. The use of resistive and normal sprinting are high during this stage in the training cycle. As persuasion approaches, workout intensity increases and volume decreases. A shift to more softball specific training occurs and base running drills should be incorporated in the program. Assisted exercises can be introduced towards the end of this stage provided that a strong speed base exists. Peak intensities are found during the competitive season.

Chart I below can serve as a guideline for developing a sound speed development program for softball.

Chart 1
FACTOR SPEED SPEED ENDURANCE
When early in week later in week
Distance 5-80m 30-150m
Rest between reps 2-10 sec 25-90 sec
Percent of effort 95-100% 90-100%
Total volume 300-800m 300-900m
Number of sets 2-4 2-6
Rest between sets 5-10 min 4-10 min

Speed plays a key factor in maximizing base running performance. Base running can win or lose a game. Improving running technique and implementing a sound speed development program can increase your speed to stretch singles into doubles and doubles into triples.

Cheryl Coker is a Speed Consultant for the University of Virginia Athletic Department.